Online Distance Learning in Higher Education: E-learning Readiness as a Predictor of Academic Achievement.

Autor*in(nen): Torun, Emel
Jahr: 2020
Dokumenttyp: Zeitschriftenartikel
Publikationstyp(en): Empirisches Dokument
Themen: Blended Learning/E-Learning, Digitalisierung


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between e-learning readiness and academic achievement in an online course in higher-level education. The survey method was employed when collecting the study data, and the data-collection instrument used was the E-Learning Readiness Scale. The scale comprises 33 items and six sub-dimensions, including (1) computer self-efficacy, (2) internet self-efficacy, (3) online self-efficacy, (4) self-directed learning, (5) learner control, (6) motivation toward e-learning. The study participants comprised 153 freshmen who were taking an online English as a Foreign Language course. A relational model is proposed in this study to measure the predicted levels of readiness on academic achievement in online learning. Reliability analysis, Pearson correlation, linear regression analysis, and structural equation modelling were used to analyze and model the study data. Results indicated that self-directed learning is the strongest predictor of academic achievement, while motivation toward e-learning was found to be another predictor of academic achievement. Internet/online/computer self-efficacy and learner control were not found to be among significant predictors of academic achievement. It is concluded that, especially with the spread of Covid-19 worldwide, education is currently switching from face-to-face to online learning in an immediate and unexpected way; therefore e-learning readiness has to be carefully taken into consideration within this new educational paradigm.


Torun, Emel (2020). Online Distance Learning in Higher Education: E-learning Readiness as a Predictor of Academic Achievement. Open Praxis, 12 (2), 191-208. Abgerufen von

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